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The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus Christ

John 18:1-3


The word “when” sets the time of the coming talk and events. Jesus has ended His prayer to the Father. Jesus travels over the ravine of Kidron to a garden called Gethsemane. He had visited this garden many times before. The word “now” means they have reached the garden. What we will read now is the conversation and events happening in the garden.

Matthew 26:47-56 gives more detail on this event. As stated in this portion of scripture, the place is called Gethsemane. Jesus tells His disciples to sit in a certain place while He goes to pray. (Matthew 26:36) In verses, 43-44, we see that Jesus left them to pray for a third time. When He returns, He finds His disciples asleep. (Matthew 26:45) Note the following statement made by Jesus to His disciples now:

“Behold, the hour is at hand and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.”

Judas Iscariot is the one who shall betray Jesus. Please read Matthew 26:14-16, which records Judas going to the chief priests. He has a conversation with them. They will pay him thirty pieces of silver for the information, which will lead them to Jesus.

While Jesus tells them that the Son of Man is about to be betrayed, the individuals who have searched for Jesus arrive. (Verse 46). Judas shows up with the 600 men along with the chief priests and Pharisees (Matthew 26 uses the words “battalion, chief priests and elders.” (NASB)

In verse 48, we read that Judas gave them a sign. He would kiss the one who is Jesus Christ. (Matthew 26:48-49)  The group arrives with lanterns, torches and weapons. The group shows what is in their hearts when it comes to Jesus. They are of the night. Therefore, their deeds are evil. They show up with weapons as though Jesus will enter a battle with them. This shows the inner workings of the heart of this group of individuals. They had attempted to take Jesus earlier, but the time had not come for His arrest and death.



John’s Explanation


John 12:37

John speaks of national unbelief in his gospel. Despite the many signs that Jesus does, they do not believe in Him as a nation. Their belief is irrational.

John 12:38

Such unbelief had been predicted by the prophet Isaiah. The clearest passage concerning the suffering of the Servant is Isaiah 53:1-12. Israel would not perceive God’s revelation concerning the Servant. Isaiah 53:1 implies that only a few have believed.

John 12:39-40

John quotes Isaiah 6:10 in order to explain that the nation as a whole was unable to believe. They consistently rejected God’s revelation of the Messiah. He had punished them with spiritual blindness and deadened hearts. They refused to believe. Note John 12:37 says “they would not believe.” Note the following verses:




John 12:41

Isaiah saw the Lord in a vision. Isaiah 6:3. John wrote that this glory Isaiah saw was Jesus’ glory. Jesus is Yahweh! See John 1:18; 10:30; 20:28; Col.2:9. Jesus in His nature is God (but God the Son is distinct in person from God the Father and God the Spirit). Isaiah spoke of Him. Many of Isaiah’s prophecies predicted the coming Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth. See the following verses:

Isaiah 4:2; 7:14; 9:6-7; 11:1-5, 10; 42:1-4; 49:1-7, 52:13-53:12; 61:1-3 Earlier Jesus had said that Moses wrote about Him John 5:46.

John 12:42-43

Despite the massive national unbelief, the situation was not hopeless. God had a remnant in the Old Testament, and He has a remnant in the New Testament. There were believers in high places who believed in Jesus. Fear of being excommunicated caused them to be silenced. They feared men’s opinions. They loved the praise of men rather than God’s praise.


Greeks Part Three

John 12:34

The crowd was puzzled. If Jesus was the Messiah, He should be here forever. There is nothing (according to the Jews’ knowledge) that said He would die. Note Daniel 7:13-14 which speaks of the Son of Man and His everlasting dominion. Was there a distinction between the Messiah (Christ) and the Son of Man. Did the term “Son of Man” differ in its sense in Daniel 7:13? Jesus was predicting His own death. They could not see how this was possible if He was the Messiah.


John 12:35-36

The issue at hand was moral. The time of opportunity was limited. Jesus is the light of the world (John 1:4, 9; 8:12; 12:46. The day of His earthly ministry was coming to a close. Note verse 23. The darkness of night was coming in. Such evil powers would hold sway over people. The man who walks in darkness described the unbeliever who stumbles through life. This individual has no idea where life is leading him. http://ref.ly/Jn3.19 and http://ref.ly/1J1.6. Their privilege was to trust in the Light (Jesus) and become sons of Light (http://ref.ly/Ro13.12, http://ref.ly/Ep5.8, and http://ref.ly/Co1.13-14. Jesus supernaturally disappears. See John 5:13; 8:59; 10:39.


Note 5: The Interrogation of the Blind Man

Andrew T. Lincoln in his book entitled “Truth on Trial: The Lawsuit Motif in John’s Gospel,” makes a strong statement concerning John 9. He states that after Jesus is interrogated in chapter 8, the blind man in John 9 is also interrogated. I am leaning toward this statement as I investigate this chapter. As you know, Jesus was questioned concerning His identity in the previous chapter. This is repeated before Jesus performs a miracle in the life of the blind man in John 9:5. “Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness but will have the light of life” (8:12) (p.97) This claim is verified through the giving of sight to the blind. This will lead to the interrogation of the man. The imagery of light and darkness is not forgotten here. As followers, we may be subjected to this same questioning and subsequent persecution.


Mr. Lincoln deals with Chapter 9 separately in his work. It should be considered that it is a part of a “more extended unit that is completed in John 10.”  This is noted in John 10:21.  The themes of interrogation and judgment are continued through chapter 10. John’s fondness for groups of seven is evident in the structuring of the episode into seven scenes.

Verses 1-7, 8-12, 13-17, 18-23,24-34, 35-38, 39-41


The central scene is located in vv. 18-23. This passage suggests the perspective from which the episode is viewed. These passages underline the significance of the scene. The author gives an “inside view” of the parents’ fear filled response. Note verse 22 where it states that the Jews had already decided that if any Jew confessed Jesus as Messiah, they would be removed from the synagogue.        


The blind man is shown to represent two dramas: he is not just a individual who has been healed, but he is also the representative of those Jewish Christian readers who have been expelled from the synagogue because of their confession of Jesus as Messiah. The blind man was born blind, and now that he receives his sight. Therefore, he loses his place in the synagogue. True light had come dispelling spiritual darkness. When true spiritual light comes, it removes the spiritual fog and reveals the light of the gospel of Jesus Christ. This man’s character undergoes greater development than any other individual in John’s gospel.


Belief in Jesus brings the true light as noted in John 1. He represents the whole of humanity. Although the Jews say they see, they are really blind spiritually. This man not only sees naturally, but he sees spiritually. The Jewish religious leaders tell him to give God the glory. He does give God glory as revealed in the Son of God.

John 9 Verses 8 through 12

This is the sixth miracle recorded in John. Each miracle has been chosen with a view to the spiritual lessons they can teach. There are seven miracles in this gospel.

The Changing of the Water into Wine

The Healing of the Nobleman’s Son

The Curing of the Impotent Man at the pool of Bethesda

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

Christ Walking on the Water

The Restoring of Sight to the Man Born Blind

The Raising of Lazarus

These miracles were chosen in order that those who read about them might be led to faith in Jesus Christ as the Messiah and the Son of God. http://ref.ly/Jn20.31

The neighbors argued over whether he was the same man who used to sit and beg. If so, it was incredible that he could see. Perhaps, they said, it was a case of mistaken identity, but he insisted he was the same man.

If he was the same man, how could he have received his sight? They knew that he was born blind. He made a factual statement concerning his healing. He said a man called Jesus made mud or clay with spit, and then anointed his eyes. This is one of two incidents where Jesus uses spit. The other incident is when He spit on His finger and touched the tongue of the deaf and mute man. Mark 7:33. The use of spit was common in those days. The spit of distinguished individuals was believed to have curative or medicinal properties. After Jesus did that, the man was told to go wash in the Pool of Siloam. This word means “sent.”

When the man returned, he came seeing.

I have decided to include more information on this miracle in Note 5: The Interrogation of the Blind Man. This is research done from Andrew Lincoln’s book entitled “Truth on Trial.”


An Attempt to Entrap Jesus

The Address at the Temple


Jesus had spent the night at the Mount of Olives. He walked a short distance to the Temple early the next morning. The sun was beginning to rise over the eastern horizon. The Mount of Olives is a hill running north to south about 1.8 miles long, lying east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. It gets its name for the large number of olive trees that grew on it. As Jesus began to teach, He was interrupted.


Jesus is approached by the scribes and the Pharisees. They bring to Him a woman caught in adultery. They speak about a commandment in the Law of Moses. It concerns anybody caught in adultery and the penalty for such sin. The penalty was stoning. They wanted to know what Jesus had to say about this woman and her sinful act. This was an act of entrapment. They wanted to make Him speak against Moses. Instead of responding in a manner that was expected of Him, Jesus stooped down on the ground and wrote on the ground. It is as though Jesus does not hear them. This infuriated them. Their plan did not work on Jesus. They continued to ask Him seeking to catch Him in His own words. Jesus’ response is not what they were looking for. He said that he that is without sin; let him cast the first stone. If they could judge righteously, then they could be the first to stone her. They could not do this because they were sinners also. They were righteous according to their actions, but not in the manner that Jesus pointed out. Then Jesus bent down and wrote something else. The scribes and Pharisees were so convicted in their conscience that they left the woman standing there, and they left. Jesus lifted Himself and looked at the woman. He asked her where those who accused her of a deadly sin were. She responded by saying nobody was there to speak the accusation. Jesus told her that He did not condemn her either. He told her not to sin anymore.

Biblical scholars wonder where the other partner is, namely the man. I agree with these individuals. Adultery is a two-person sin. To me this seems as a prejudicial act against women. When Jesus’ earthly ministry was in existence, women were looked upon as cattle. Jesus’ ministry raised women to a place of respect and love. At this point in the lesson, I would like us to review Old Testament scriptures on this matter.

Exodus 20:14 (NASB)
(14) “You shall not commit adultery.

First, Israel is told not to commit adultery, which involves two people. This was between a man and a woman. This is an act between two married people. Note the following verse:

Leviticus 20:10 (NASB)
(10) ‘If there is a man who commits adultery with another man’s wife, one who commits adultery with his friend’s wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

Based upon this verse, the adulterer and the adulteress shall die. In addition, did the scribes and Pharisees entrap the woman? Was this the cause why there was no man? She was caught in the act. Was this an old time setup in order to entrap Jesus? Some biblical scholars wonder if a man was paid for his assistance in this matter. Notice the following scriptures, which I bring to your attention. They knew the law, and they knew what was required of the law concerning its penalty.

Deuteronomy 22:22 (NASB)
(22) “If a man is found lying with a married woman, then both of them shall die, the man who lay with the woman, and the woman; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.

The scribes and Pharisees have conspired to corner the Lord. This reveals the evil, black heart they have. They are not interested in justice, but entrapment. The person they want to stone is not the woman, but Jesus. What wickedness is shown here in the religious leaders! They even call Jesus by a different title. In verse four they call Him “Master.” This is the same crowd who called Him a deceiver. Here their true nature is revealed. I refer you back to John 7:12 where the division of the people can be seen.

These individuals sought to flatter Jesus when they called Him “Master.” Jesus is not fooled. Solomon warned of this in the following verses:

Proverbs 20:29 (NASB)
(29) The glory of young men is their strength, And the honor of old men is their gray hair.

Proverbs 29:5 (NASB)
(5) A man who flatters his neighbor Is spreading a net for his steps.

From this “entrapment,” what is the dilemma in this situation?

1.     If Jesus orders an execution, He would be in trouble with the Roman government and lose the people. He would lose His message of forgiveness and of being a friend of sinners and publicans.

2.     If He recommends she be freed, He would be going against or contradicting the Law. Note the following verse on this:  Matthew 5:17 (NASB)
(17) “Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill.


Jesus’ Words and Their Effect on the Crowd

The words of Jesus affected people in different ways. This portion of scripture reveals that division. This is true today. Many people hear the Word of God spoken, and their reactions are different. It should be noted at this point in this lesson that everybody heard the same words, but the reactions were different. This fact reveals that there were those who heard the natural and not spiritual words. This is one of the reasons for the varying reactions. Some accepted it by faith while others received the words with natural understanding. Here is a brief list of the various responses to Jesus’ words.

1.     Decisive-John 7:40-41 (KJV)
(40) Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet. (41) Others said This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee?

2.     Doubting-John 7:42 (KJV)
(42) Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was? Jesus was from Galilee. The Messiah is from Bethlehem. They were mistaken because they jumped to conclusions.

3.     Divided and Debating John 7:43-44 (KJV)
(43) So there was a division among the people because of him. (44) And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.

4.     Disconcerted or bewildered-John 7:45-46 (KJV)
(45) Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him? (46) The officers answered, Never man spake like this man.

The crowd was captivated by His message, not by His miracles. They said, “Nobody has ever spoken like Him.” Here are some statements that grabbed their attention through the years.

Matthew 5:39 (KJV)
(39) But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.

Matthew 5:41 (KJV)
(41) And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.

Matthew 5:44 (KJV)
(44) But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;


Incident at the Pool


As I discussed in the previous lesson, people gathered around the five porticos (porches) for the purpose of being healed. The water was said to be visited by an angel. When the water was stirred, it was said to contain healing virtue. The first one to step into the water would be healed. http://ref.ly/Jn5.3f This portion of scripture focuses on one man. This man had been infirmed for thirty-eight years. This is where this lesson picks up.

Jesus saw this man lying there at the pool. Jesus knew how long the man at been at this pool. Jesus strikes up a conversation with the man. Jesus asks the man “do you want to be made whole?” The man does not give a direct answer. It should have been either “yes” or “no.” Instead, the man gives an explanation as to why he cannot get to the water. He has nobody to get him to the water in time. Somebody always beats him to the pool. This man was giving excuses instead of standing in faith. (figuratively speaking) http://ref.ly/Jn5.6f This is when Jesus gives the man a direct command. In verse 8, Jesus tells the man to take up his bed and walk. The Lord healed the man by His word. http://ref.ly/Mk3.5 and http://ref.ly/He4.12 Immediately the man gains the victory over his illness. He takes up his bed and walks.

There is one thing that John bears out about this incident. Jesus healed the man on the Sabbath! This is one of the prophesied ministries of the Messiah. http://ref.ly/Is35.3-6 This is one of the things that the Sadducees and Pharisees claimed that Jesus did wrong! He healed on the Sabbath! They considered Jesus healing on the Sabbath work. If they had known their scriptures, they would have recognized Jesus for Who He was. They were spiritually blind.

This is a revelation of the grace of God. Grace brought Jesus to the Pool of Bethesda. It should be noted that Jesus healed one man. The fact that Jesus came to this man, spoke to this man and healed him is proof of His wonderful grace and mercy. Considering the nation of Israel, they had wandered in the wilderness for thirty-eight years http://ref.ly/Dt2.14. When looking at Israel from a spiritual aspect, Israel was a nation of impotent people. They waited hopelessly for something to happen. [Bible Exposition Commentary (BE Series) – New Testament, Volume 1 – Be Alive (John 1-12) John – Chapter Five, p. 304]

After the man was healed, Jesus moves on. He did not pause to heal anybody else. He may have moved on so as not to cause any problems among the people. Some people have been calling for Him to heal them. Jesus had done His work here, and He was called to move on. Remember Jesus is on a Divine schedule. The Greek word for “moved away” means “to dodge.”


Being an Effective Witness

The Samaritan woman says that there is word that the Messiah shall come. She does not realize that He is standing in front of her until Jesus makes the declaration. What you should is the fact that Jesus does not declare Who He is before the religious leaders. The religious leaders should have known Who He was based upon their knowledge of the scriptures. Because of political implications, Jesus does not reveal Himself to the people. He used the title “Son of Man” instead. Danger of revolt did not exist with the Samaritans.

When the woman heard this, she was converted. Her conversion made her become an immediate witness. What did you do when you were converted? Did you seek to tell all what you had heard and done? This woman did not think about the fact that the men might not listen to her. One thing I would like to point out is the fact that women were not treated with respect. Why would she think that the men in her city would listen to her? She did not care. She wanted to share the good news whether they would listen or not. All she knew was what Jesus had said to her. Although her knowledge was limited, that did not stop her from witnessing in her city.

She left her waterpot. http://ref.ly/Jn4.28 Why would she do this? She had found the living water. She heard of water that would cause her to never thirst. She ran with the intention of coming back to Jesus. Jesus broke down the racial barriers, and He ministered to a woman. http://ref.ly/Ep4.4-6 He laid aside all cultural and social barriers to be a witness to this woman and the world. No wonder He had to go through Samaria!

There is another point that I want to bring out. Jesus took His time with this woman. He did not rush her into a decision. He dealt with her on her level. He slowly revealed the truth to her. Even though she attempted to detour the conversation, Jesus gently put the conversation back on track. He brought her to a decision of salvation by helping her recognize her sin. He did not jump down her throat. He did not bully her. He explained the truth, and through His loving kindness, mercy and compassion, she came to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. Is that what we do when we are witnessing to someone? Are we patient and gentle with them like Jesus was with this woman? Are we willing to witness to someone who is a foreigner knowing that Jesus died for him or her as well? These are questions you must ask yourself.